SEE ALSO Civil Rights Movement; Heterosexism and Homophobia; Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. Anderson, Jervis, and Bayard Rustin. As late as 1980 he said, "You cannot give respectability to one terrorist group [meaning the Palestine Liberation Organization] without other groups benefiting from that respectability." Again, Rustin’s diplomatic ability to smooth over conflicts among march leaders was key. ." At the age of eleven Rustin made a startling discovery: the woman he had always been told was his sister, Florence, was in fact his mother, and the couple whom he knew as his parents were actually his grandparents. He thought is mother was actually his sister. Bayard Rustin. Arrested in North Carolina, Rustin served 22 days on a chain gang. Rustin became the head of the AFL–CIO’s A. Philip Randolph Institute, which promoted the integration of formerly all-white unions and promoted the unionization of African Americans. New York: Harper Collins. The pacifist Bayard Rustin (1910-1987) was committed to nonviolent strategies for working toward racial equality and economic justice. In 1964, in the largest civil rights demonstration ever, he mobilized a boycott of the New York City public schools to protest racial imbalance. . George, Carol "Rustin, Bayard Bayard Rustin (1912–1987) was a civil rights strategist and humanitarian who shaped the course of social protest in the twentieth century. Like the rest of his family, Rustin became a Quaker, maintaining an enduring commitment to personal pacifism as a way of life. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. At a Glance… He worried that his actions would detract from FOR’s cause, and his conduct earned a swift reprimand from Muste. Born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, on March 17, 1912, Rustin served as Martin Luther King Jr.’s political adviser and as the organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. In 1947 he organized a Journey of Reconciliation to 15 cities in the South to publicize segregation in interstate transportation and to encourage African Americans to insist on the rights they had won in the courts. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. . After the passage of the civil-rights legislation of 1964–65, Rustin focused attention on the economic problems of working-class and unemployed African Americans, suggesting that the civil-rights movement had left its period of “protest” and had entered an era of “politics”, in which the Black community had to ally with the labour movement. Bayard Rustin was a black Civil Rights activist, a close associate of Martin Luther King, and an advocate of gay and lesbian rights, and a Quaker. ." He never softened his principles. Following a humanitarian trip to Haiti, Rustin died from cardiac arrest on August 24, 1987, at the age of seventy-five. Story at a glance. The Reverend Ralph David Abernathy, closest friend and adviser of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., was a…, Bayamon Central University: Narrative Description, Bayard v. Singleton 1 Martin (N. Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was a lifelong socialist, one-time Communist, homosexual activist, and personal secretary to the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Carbado, Devon W., and Donald Weise, eds. Car.) . At the heart of CORE’s philosophy was the idea of “nonviolent direct action,” an American adaptation of the principle of Satyagraha, the “soul force” exercised by Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi and his followers in their struggle for independence from Britain. Rustin and his fellow riders were beaten and arrested, and Rustin spent twenty-two days on a North Carolina chain gang as the result of a bungled defense by NAACP lawyers. ." 21 Dec. 2020 . Story at a glance. I couldn’t know that 14 years later, Bayard and I would become life partners, sharing much happiness rooted in the values of our early religious training. Together, they decided the WPB should focus on Southern Africa as a site where non-violent direct action was most urgently needed. As a peace activist he mobilized the first Aldermaston march for nuclear disarmament in England and joined a ban-la-bombe march in the Sahara to protest the first French nuclear-test explosion. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Bayard Rustin died from a ruptured appendix on August 24, 1987 at the age of 75. Early in the 1950s Rustin became active in the movement of African nationalists seeking independence from European colonialism and also headed the pacifist War Resisters League. Encyclopedia.com. I just happened to be a participant in the March on Washington in August of 1963 & More. Bayard Rustin was the chief architect of the 1963 March on Washington and a beloved member of the IRC Board of Directors. What/Who was HE??? Homosexuality was criminalized in parts of the United States until 2003. He formed an organization called In Friendship in March 1956, and he publishing King’s writings in the journal Liberation. In 1938 he moved to Harlem as an organizer for the league, enrolling in the City College of New York and earning his livelihood by singing in nightclubs with Josh White and Huddie Ledbetter ("Leadbelly"). When Rustin began to run into trouble with laws against homosexual activity, FOR chairman Muste warned him that any further such violations would cause his dismissal from the organization. (December 21, 2020). Strategies for Freedom: The Changing Patterns of Black Protest. Rustin became Muste’s chief acolyte, but his rise to leadership left him politically vulnerable, and in 1943 he was sentenced to three years in prison for refusing to register for selective service. Although he was best known for his influence on the course of the black protest agenda, Rustin’s political engagements extended to organized labor and world affairs. Bayard Rustin: The Troubles I've Seen. 2006. Against a backdrop of war wounds,  in 1963 a divided Europe was still suffering emotionally from the devastation…, At least half a million children in England don’t have a safe or stable home. A Henry Louis Gate, Jr. blog post. However, when Montgomery commissioners charged civil rights leaders for illegal organizing, it was Rustin who proposed that the accused turn themselves in to authorities before arrest warrants were issued. In the mid-1930s, seeking an organization that shared his opposition to war and racism, he joined the Young Communist League (YCL). ." However, in 1953, following one of his speaking engagements in Pasadena, Rustin was charged with lewd conduct for engaging in gay sex. Under Rustin’s direction, the March on Washington proved to be a turning point in American history. The boycott soon attracted the attention of the national press and of northern civil rights activists; to Bayard Rustin, the Montgomery bus boycott represented a chance to regain his former influence by joining what appeared certain to become a national movement. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Martin Luther King Jr., the leader of the boycott, accepted his help. After the mid-1960s, Rustin's calls for blacks to work within the political system and his close ties with Jewish groups and labor unions made him the target of attacks by younger radicals, while his support for American investment and educational efforts in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s outraged opponents of the Apartheid regime. However, Rustin remained an outsider in black civil-rights circles because, unlike most of his peers, he was gay. Toward the end of his life, he also became increasingly open about his homosexuality and spoke out in favor of equal rights for gays and lesbians. _____, Ed Edwin, and Walter Neagle. (December 21, 2020). ." The march was equally a personal triumph for Rustin, who in seven weeks had orchestrated the largest public protest in American history. New York: Free Press. The SCLC distanced itself from older and more conservative bodies such as the NAACP by advocating direct action in the pursuit of civil liberties, though always in the Gandhian tradition of nonviolence. Birmingham Protest March We are proud of our reputation as a leading…, The Barbican exists to inspire people to discover and love the arts. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Rosa Louise Parks was nationally recognized as the “mother of the modern day civil rights movement” in America…. Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin. Bayard Rustin was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, pacifism and non-violence, and gay rights. In the Greenwich Village social circles in which Rustin traveled, it was acknowledged and accepted that he was homosexual; outside this zone of tolerance Rustin’s personal life was considered a potential liability to the political organizations for which he worked. A Way Out of the Exploding Ghetto (1967); Down the Line (1971); and Strategies for Freedom (1976). (December 21, 2020). Working with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Rustin orchestrated the Journey of Reconciliation, which involved sixteen CORE members traveling by bus between southern cities in order to test a recent Supreme Court ruling that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel. Click here for a link to the Montgomery County Food Council page. "Bayard Rustin Upon release, he resumed activist work with both CORE and FOR, in 1947 joining a group of other courageous Freedom Riders in the first of many protest rides throughout the South. As a result, Rustin’s conception of the march was moderated. He was a leading activist of the early 1947–1955 civil-rights movement, helping to initiate a 1947 Freedom Ride to challenge with civil disobedience racial segregation on interstate busing. Down the Line: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin, Quadrangle Books, 1971. Rustin was also instrumental in organizing two Youth Marches for Integrated Schools in 1958 and 1959. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. When the bus boycott developed in Montgomery, Alabama, Rustin appeared on the scene to offer support, advice, and information on nonviolence. In addition, his pre-1941 Communist Party affiliation when he was a young man was controversial. Belief in nonviolence is deeply rooted in A…, Forman, James 1928– Raised by his grandparents, he acquired a gourmet appreciation of fine food from his grandfather, a caterer, and a lifelong commitment to nonviolence and racial equality from his grandmother, a dedicated member of the Society of Friends and local leader of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Interracial in its membership, CORE’s activities focused on challenging racial discrimination in public accommodations and transportation. The eruption of violent race riots in the African American ghettoes of the nation and the emergence of the Black Power movement in the mid-1960s, however, forced Rustin from the forefront of African American protest and demonstrations. Merseyside Police – Are you ready for a new challenge. Down the Line: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin. Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963, Simon & Schuster, 1988. On the recommendation of A. Philip Randolph, a leader in both the trade union and civil rights movements, Rustin went to Montgomery in 1956 to advise King during the bus boycott. Originally conceived as a militant demonstration against employment discrimination, the march assumed greater breadth with the participation of major civil rights leaders. Encyclopedia.com. Born March 17,1910, in West Chester, PA; died of a heart attack, August 24, 1987, in New York City. In 1941, when asked by the party to abandon his program to gain young black recruits in favor of a singular emphasis on the European war effort, Rustin quit the party. A 1952 visit to countries in North and West Africa convinced him of the need to assist Africans in their independence struggle. He was on a humanitarian mission in Haiti when he died in 1987. [1][2] He counseled Martin Luther King, Jr. on the techniques of nonviolent resistance. Frontline – Do you have what it takes to change lives? Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. George, Carol "Rustin, Bayard Bayard Rustin (1912-1987) was a civil rights activist. He accumulated a colorful personal history, beginning with his youthful discovery that the woman he had assumed was his older sister was actually his mother. Looking to enroll at Bayard Rustin Elementary? New York: Columbia University Press. John Whiteclay Chambers II "Rustin, Bayard In 1947 as a member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, Rustin planned the "Journey of Reconciliation", which would be used as a model for the Freedom Rides of the 1960's. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Bayard Rustin was the heart and soul of the Black Civil Rights Movement in the United States. Randolph offered Rustin temporary work with his March on Washington Movement, a project targeting racial discrimination in defense industries, and he further helped Rustin by arranging a meeting with A. J. Muste, the radical reformer who headed an international pacifist organization called the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Joining Martin Luther King, Jr. first in the 1955 bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, Rustin served for a half dozen years as a special assistant to King and played a major role in planning the establishment of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). After leading several civil-disobedience campaigns, Rustin fell under the scrutiny of prison officials, and when inmates complained about Rustin’s sexual relationships with other men, he was placed in isolation. Rustin was hired as FOR’s youth secretary and resumed traveling throughout the country promoting the cause of nonviolent struggle for social change. Bayard Rustin was a famous American civil rights activist, who was born on March 17, 1912. The following year, unwilling to accept either the validity of the draft or conscientious-objector status—though his Quaker affiliation made that option possible—he was jailed as a draft resister and spent twenty-eight months in prison. Rustin was particularly instrumental in the development of the nonviolent protest movement that evolved from the Montgomery bus boycott associated with Martin Luther King, Jr. Bayard Rustin ES Facilities Assessment Report School Audits Independent Activity Funds (IAF) are established to promote the general welfare, education, and morale of students, as well as to finance the recognized extracurricular activities of the student body. (December 21, 2020). Bayard Rustin was a civil rights leader, pacifist, political organizer, and controversial public figure. He grew up in West Chester, Pennsylvania, in a family of nine children; the household was headed by a pair of caterers. ." John Whiteclay Chambers II "Rustin, Bayard In the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), Rustin practiced nonviolence. . Rustin died in New York City of a heart attack August 24, 1987. But by 1963 Rustin had grown disillusioned with nonviolent direct action as a means of effecting change on behalf of black people. Here he parted with King, who still believed in the power of mass demonstrations. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63, The Oxford Companion to American Military History, Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929-1968 ." https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rustin-bayard, George, Carol "Rustin, Bayard However, Rustin remained in close touch with the man most responsible for the success or failure of the SCLC, Martin Luther King, Jr. Rustin encouraged the cult of personality growing around King and helped the emerging leader by briefing him for meetings, drafting speeches and press releases—in short, by giving the younger man the benefit of his experience as a political tactician and of his connections with wealthy civil rights supporters. But with this participation came a number of political conflicts that Rustin and Randolph compelled to deal with. ." 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