Shermans March to the Sea . Confederacy. Such broad generalizations may assuage wounded Southern pride, but they also rewrite history. Sherman completed his march to the sea from Atlanta to Savannah from Sep to Nov ‘64. November 16, 1864 - General Sherman's Army of Georgia begins the "March to the Sea" November 30, 1864- Battle of Franklin, Tennessee. Known as "Sherman's March to the Sea," the campaign through Georgia effectively eliminated the region's economic usefulness to the Confederate cause. Then, on November 15, he commenced his great March to the Sea with 62,000 men, laying waste to the economic resources of Georgia in a 50-mile- (80-km-) wide swath of destruction. So in December 25, 1864 Sherman's March to the Sea … You don't have a CLUE what Sherman's March to the Sea even WAS... do you.? Lively battle narrative is included for military engagements along the way. With his supply lines reopened, Sherman began making plans to lay siege to Savannah. In the fighting that followed, Union infantry inflicted a severe defeat on the Confederates. Did anyone gain an advantage? Sherman's March to the Sea took place from November 15 to December 22, 1864, during the American Civil War. He decided that he would permit his men to supply themselves from civilians along the march. While some Confederates remained committed to the struggle, other Confederates began to doubt the Confederacy's chance for victory over the Union. Consulting with Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, the two men agreed that it would be necessary to destroy the South's economic and psychological will to resist if the war was to be won. In this video, we ask how bad was it? Entrenched in a strong position, Hardee refused to surrender and remained determined to defend the city. During the march, Sherman's forces would cut loose from their supply lines and would live off the land. How Union Army Major General William Tecumseh Sherman led a force of 60.000 infantry and 5500 Union Calvary on a punitive march, known as Sherman's March to the Sea, through the Confederacy in late 1964 to … The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. But instead, just days after the election, Sherman took his men on one of the ambitious and risky campaigns of the war, cutting loose from his supply line to cut a sixty-mile swath through to the sea. Sherman swore to “make Georgia howl,” and in his Special Field Order No. Presenting his plan to Grant, Sherman received approval and began making preparations to depart Atlanta on November 15, 1864. With Gene Barry, John Gallaudet, Robert Stevenson, Michael Whalen. Photograph of Lieutenant General William Tecumseh Sherman on his horse, Duke, before the city of Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. https://ohiohistorycentral.org/index.php?title=Sherman%27s_March_to_the_Sea&oldid=32427. As the Northerners began their 285-mile march south and east to Savannah, Hood led his Confederate army on a raid into Tennessee. Smith on November 30, Hatch moved to attack. The following spring, Sherman launched his final campaign of the war north into the Carolinas, before finally receiving the surrender of General Joseph Johnston on April 26, 1865. The depleted Confederate forces in the South were able to offer little resistance to the Union army as it cut a swath of destruction across Georgia during Sherman's March to the Sea. The Armies of the Cumberland and Ohio were detached under the command of Major General George H. Thomas with orders to guard Sherman's rear against the remnants of General John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee. Kennedy Hickman is a historian, museum director, and curator who specializes in military and naval history. Food that the men could not eat or carry away generally was burned. Hood proposed to march his army around Sherman’s and get in his rear. His vision of hard war brought the Confederacy to its knees, but forestalled thousands of battlefield and civilian deaths. History >> Civil War General Sherman's march through the state of Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah was one of the most devastating blows to the South in the American Civil War. So in December 25, 1864 Sherman's March to the Sea … H5b Explain Georgia's role in the Civil War; include the Union blockade of Georgia's coast, the Emancipation Proclamation, Chickamuga, Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea… Sherman pursued only at first. He has appeared on The History Channel as a featured expert. Sherman’s 60,000 remaining men began a 285-mile march to the coast on November 15. It is estimated that during the six-week March to the Sea fewer than 3,000 casualties resulted. STRONGEST MAN WITH SHERMAN. He captured Savannah, 285 miles (460 km) from Atlanta, on December 21. Sherman's march to the sea. Sherman’s March to the Sea Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was a contradiction embodied. This source gives insight into the context of the March to the Sea. The use of total war achieved Sherman's desired effect. Arriving outside Savannah on December 10, Sherman found that Hardee had flooded the fields outside the city which limited access to a few causeways. President Hayes is coming to Dodge City accompanied by General Sherman during an election stop. In his report of the march to the sea, Sherman declared that he had destroyed the railroads for more than 100 miles, and had consumed the corn and fodder in the region of country 30 miles on either side of a line from Atlanta to Savannah, as also the sweet potatoes, cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry, and carried away more than 10,000 horses and mules, as well as a countless number of slaves. Sherman's march to the sea was followed by a similarly devastating march through the Carolinas early in 1865, but the message to the South was clear. He proposed leaving nearly sixty thousand men behind in northern Georgia and Tennessee to deal with Confederate soldiers under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest and General John Bell Hood. D) The South continued to fight and win several small skirmishes. Directed by Eddie Davis. C) The South gave their slaves their freedom and enlisted them to fight against the North. The Union would be the answer. Sherman would take the remainder of his army of sixty-two thousand men from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia, on the Atlantic Ocean. Each battle or city is marked with a date. They also destroyed a number of homes along the way. . Sherman's men successfully occupied Savannah in mid-December 1864. Major General William T. Sherman's personal escort on the Sherman's March to the Sea was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, a unit made up entirely of Southerners who remained loyal to the Union. At the former, Kilpatrick was surprised and nearly captured. ; Veteran Who Won Fame on Historic "March to the Sea" Dies. . Hood, with 40,000 men, marched toward Nashville. There are small illustrations on the lower half of the document illustrating moments from the March to the Sea. Union Major Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and James B. McPherson successfully defended against a Confederate offensive from Lieutenant General John Bell Hood on the eastern outskirts of Atlanta. Which side won? What did Sherman send to Lincoln, when he got to Savannah? William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea; American Civil WarEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc./Kenny Chmielewski For Lincoln’s part, the repeated victories at Atlanta and the eventual capture of the city bolstered his reelection campaign. Sherman's March to the Sea took place from November 15 to December 22, 1864, during the American Civil War. Sherman’s March to the Sea devastated Georgia and the Confederacy. On September 1, 1864, Sherman and his army captured Atlanta, Georgia, an important transportation center in the Confederacy. Sherman’s March to the Sea marked a new development in the war. As Sherman's men pushed southeast, they systematically destroyed all manufacturing plants, agricultural infrastructure, and railroads they encountered. Background In the wake of his successful campaign to capture Atlanta, Major General William T. Sherman began making plans for a march against Savannah. Consulting the crop and livestock data from the 1860 census, he planned a route that would inflict maximum damage upon the enemy. Sherman's March To The Sea was the ending event for the Union to beat the Confederacy. To break the will of the Confederate population, Sherman proposed a March to the Sea. The goal was to deny the Confederacy the means of feeding its armies and it’s ability to prosecute war by ruthlessly, burning crops, barns, mills, and factories and confiscating livestock. So on Nov. 15, 1864, Sherman’s army set out from Atlanta on its infamous March to the Sea, cutting a swath of destruction toward Savannah on the coast. General Grant arranged two campaigns for the year 1864. Union General Sherman’s scorched-earth March to the Sea campaign begins ... After hearing that President Abraham Lincoln had won re-election on November 8, Sherman … As a result of Hood's action, fewer than five thousand Confederate soldiers under General Joseph Wheeler stood between Sherman's army and Savannah. Had McClellan won, General Sherman’s march through Georgia would surely have come to an end. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, A Christmas Present for President Lincoln, American Civil War: Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Civil War: Major General George H. Thomas, American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek. As they approached Savannah, additional Union troops entered the fray as 5,500 men, under Brigadier General John P. Hatch, descended from Hilton Head, SC in an attempt to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad near Pocotaligo. You don't have a CLUE what Sherman's March to the Sea even WAS... do you.? Known as "bummers," foragers from the army became a common sight along its route of march. A common technique for wrecking the latter was heating railroad rails over fires and twisting them around trees. This is a well-rounded, comprehensive book documenting Sherman’s march to the sea, including the capture of Savannah, told from the perspective of participants on both sides, including civilians. Instead of pursuing Sherman, Hood took his army into Tennessee, leaving a force of 12,000 men under General William Hardee to oppose Federal operations. 1 After the war, critiques of military actions by the North and South often focused on leaders' controversial decisions. Not only did he take control of Atlanta, a major railroad hub, and Savannah, a major sea port, but he laid the land between Atlanta and Savannah to waste, destroying all that was in his path. A) The South was relieved that the war was finally coming to a close. Hayle Baker 7th hour Who Won and Why? He saw destruction of property as less onerous than casualties. . With Anne J. Bailey, Thomas Y. Cartwright, Matthew Davis, Dale Dye. What did the March accomplish? The South. This was accomplished on December 13, and communications were opened with Rear Admiral John Dahlgren's naval forces. In late 1864, Sherman decides to march his army from Atlanta to Savannah, living off the land, and destroying everything along the way that could aid the Confederate army. The Marshal will protect Hayes but he asking Bat to become a deputy to protect General Sherman in a town full of southern cowboys who hate him. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Minimal. A turning point in the Civil War came 150 years ago this week, when Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman left the smoking ruins of Atlanta and launched his scorching March to the Sea… Otherwise it essentially needed to be completely defeated bit by bit. On April 26, 1865, Sherman accepted the surrender of Johnston’s army near Durham, North Carolina. American Civil War: General William T. Sherman, American Civil War : War in the West, 1863-1865, The Battle of Atlanta in the American Civil War, American Civil War: Battle of Jonesboro (Jonesborough), American Civil War: Battle of Ezra Church, American Civil War: Major General Joseph Wheeler, American Civil War: Major General Carl Schurz, American Civil War: Andersonville Prison Camp, American Civil War: Major General Patrick Cleburne, American Civil War: Battle of Bentonville, M.S., Information and Library Science, Drexel University, B.A., History and Political Science, Pennsylvania State University. Sherman's March to the Sea Analyzing the Ethics of Sherman's Military Strategies A portrait of Ulysses S. Grant and his generals, including William Tecumseh Sherman. Sherman captured Meridian, Mississippi, inflicting heavy damage to it. Directed by Eddie Davis. Dividing his forces in three, Sherman advanced along two major routes with Major General Oliver O. Howard's Army of the Tennessee on the right and Major General Henry Slocum's Army of Georgia on the left. Who were the commanders of the Confederate and Union Armies? How should the actions of these men be remembered and judged? Major General William T. Sherman's personal escort on the Sherman's March to the Sea was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, a unit made up entirely of Southerners who remained loyal to the Union. Sherman was born in Lancaster, Ohio, on February 8, 1820, and graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1840. President Hayes is coming to Dodge City accompanied by General Sherman during an election stop. William T. To accomplish this, Sherman intended to conduct a campaign designed to eliminate any resources that could be used by Confederate forces. The March to the Sea has come down to us as an act of savage brutality perpetrated by one of the great villains of American history. Needing to link up with the US Navy to receive supplies, Sherman dispatched Brigadier General William Hazen's division to capture Fort McAllister on the Ogeechee River. There was almost no opposition. 1 After the war, critiques of military actions by the North and South often focused on leaders' controversial decisions. General William T. Sherman has destroyed Atlanta and is confident he can break his supply lines and march his 60,000+ army east to the sea at Savannah,Georgia.. Shermans army will live off the land and “make Georgia howl”, inflicting the demoralization to the countryside and state that he knew would break the will of the south. Through the course of the campaign, Hardee was able to utilize those troops still in Georgia as well as those brought in from Florida and the Carolinas. His soldiers commonly requisitioned all of the provisions that they could find from the civilian population. March to the Sea more formally known as the Savannah Campaign, was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 to December 21, 1864 by Maj. Gen. William T Sherman of the Union Army. Ohioan William Tecumseh Sherman, a general in the Union army during the American Civil War, is best known for his March to the Sea. To speed the defeat of the Confederacy, Union forces needed to prevent Southern civilians from supplying their armies. A Veteran Before the American Civil War. To the north, Slocum's two corps moved east then southeast towards the state capital at Milledgeville. Finally realizing that Savannah was Sherman's target, Hardee began concentrating his men to defend the city, while ordering Major General Joseph Wheeler's cavalry to attack the Union flanks and rear. sherman's march to the sea who won The March to the Sea began on November 15, 1864, and saw Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman devastate Georgia before capturing Savannah., Letter, Sherman to Henry W. Halleck, December 24, 1864. Then, on November 15, he commenced his great March to the Sea with 62,000 men, laying waste to the economic resources of Georgia in a 50-mile- (80-km-) wide swath of destruction. Sherman swore to “make Georgia howl,” and in his Special Field Order No. Standard histories of Major General William T. Shermans celebrated March to the Sea invariably portray the Confederacys response as inconsequential. William Sherman general of the union in the battle of Sherman's March to the sea destroyed all of Confederacy's resources and they eventually gave up. Former Southern Brigadier General Clement A. Evans asserted, for example, that there was no force available to obstruct Shermans soldiers. This was the importance of Sherman's March To The Sea. Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign or simply Sherman's March) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army.The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture … He eliminated Atlanta's war making potential and brought sheer destruction to Georgia, then offered generous surrender terms. Sherman realized that the Confederate civilian population provided most of the supplies that Confederate forces needed to wage war against the Union. General William T. Sherman has destroyed Atlanta and is confident he can break his supply lines and march his 60,000+ army east to the sea at Savannah,Georgia.. Shermans army will live off the land and “make Georgia howl”, inflicting the demoralization to the countryside and state that he knew would break the will of the south. That very day an additional 500 were transferred to Savannah lowering the prison's population even further. To ensure that adequate supplies were gathered, Sherman issued strict orders regarding foraging and the seizure of material from the local population. Sherman left Atlanta with his sixty-two-thousand-man army on November 15, 1864. Pictures Sherman's March to the Sea Quote from the Battle "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the City of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty guns and plenty of ammunition, also about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton." Sherman's March to the Sea. William Sherman general of the union in the battle of Sherman's March to the sea destroyed all of Confederacy's resources and they eventually gave up. O ver 150 years after the American Civil War ended, somebody other than Gen. William Sherman has conquered Georgia. General who succeeded on the campaigns that led to victories in Vicksburg and Atlanta, and completed the March to the Sea, was able to capture Johnston and his army. History >> Civil War General Sherman's march through the state of Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah was one of the most devastating blows to the South in the American Civil War. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to McClellan’s 21. Sherman was born in Lancaster, Ohio, on February 8, 1820, and graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1840. Initially moving south, Howard's men pushed Confederate troops out of Lovejoy's Station before pressing on towards Macon. So on Nov. 15, 1864, Sherman’s army set out from Atlanta on its infamous March to the Sea, cutting a swath of destruction toward Savannah on the coast. Battle of Atlanta (July 22, 1864), American Civil War engagement that was part of the Union’s Atlanta Campaign. With Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's march, ... and went into enemy territory to destroy many different outposts in the South towards their win. He said that the Union military was "not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war." Sherman's use of total war helped the Union win the American Civil War. As Sherman advanced to the sea, Thomas' men destroyed Hood's army at the Battles of Franklin and Nashville. Ohioan William Tecumseh Sherman, a general in the Union army during the American Civil War, is best known for his March to the Sea. Known as "Sherman's Neckties," they became a common sight along the route of march. Encountering Confederate troops led by General G.W. Despite these reinforcements, he seldom possessed more than 13,000 men. Despite this important Union victory, the Confederate government and many of its citizens remained committed to the war effort. General Ulysses S. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln opposed this plan at first, but Sherman convinced them of its importance. One of the most infamous campaigns of the Civil War was William Tecumseh Sherman's march through Georgia to the Sea. What was the main result of Sherman's March to the Sea? Not only did he take control of Atlanta, a major railroad hub, and Savannah, a major sea port, but he laid the land between Atlanta and Savannah to waste, destroying all that was in his path. This ended the war for Tennessee and Hood’s career. The following morning, the mayor of Savannah formally surrendered the city to Sherman. His success assured Lincoln's re-election in 1864. And having triumpthed in the election of 1864 Lincoln it gets even more good news from Georgia which is a telegram from General Sherman from the city of Savannah saying Mr. President, I wish to offer you the city of Savannah as a Christmas present. In addition to the economic damage, it was thought that Sherman's movement would increase pressure on General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and allow Grant to gain a victory in the Siege of Petersburg. In the wake of his successful campaign to capture Atlanta, Major General William T. Sherman began making plans for a march against Savannah. B) The South was broken psychologically and lost its will to fight. Departing Atlanta by different routes, the Howard and Slocum's columns attempted to confuse Hardee as to their ultimate objective with Macon, Augusta, or Savannah as possible destinations. Award-winning Civil War historian Noah Andre Trudeau has written a gripping, definitive new account that will stand as the last word on General William Tecumseh Sherman's epic march—a targeted strategy aimed to break not only the Confederate army but an entire society as well. William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. The U.S. National Archives / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain. This, he thought, would force Sherman to turn around and go after Hood, lest his supply line be broken. This is a well-rounded, comprehensive book documenting Sherman’s march to the sea, including the capture of Savannah, told from the perspective of participants on both sides, including civilians. On December 17, he contacted Hardee with a warning that he would begin shelling the city if it were not surrendered. Sherman took Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland (the most advanced army of the world at that time) away from him for what was later called Sherman’s “cakewalk to the sea.” Then Thomas was sent to Nashville to deal with Hood who had easily escaped Sherman after being defeated at the battles of Atlanta. The initial assault was halted by Brigadier General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick's cavalry which in turn counterattacked. Sherman intended his March to the Sea to break the will of the Confederate population. On September 1, 1864, Sherman and his army captured Atlanta, Georgia, an important transportation center in the Confederacy. 120 he laid out the rules of destruction and conduct for the march. In short, the March to the Sea demonstrates not that Sherman was a brute, but that he wanted to wage a war that did not result in countless deaths. Had nick names like- Cump, Uncle Billy (by his troops) Born on February 8, 1820 He was from Lancaster, Ohio, U.S. Died on February 14, 1891 (aged 71) He died im New York City, New York, U.S. Lincoln won all but 3 Union states (KY, NJ, and DE). Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign or simply Sherman's March) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. 120 he laid out the rules of destruction and conduct for the march. The Marshal will protect Hayes but he asking Bat to become a deputy to protect General Sherman in a town full of southern cowboys who hate him. Unwilling to give in, Hardee escaped with his command over the Savannah River on December 20 using an improvised pontoon bridge. The first significant action of the march occurred at Griswoldville on November 22, when Wheeler's cavalry and Georgia militia attacked on Howard's front. With Gene Barry, John Gallaudet, Robert Stevenson, Michael Whalen. How many casualties were there? And having triumpthed in the election of 1864 Lincoln it gets even more good news from Georgia which is a telegram from General Sherman from the city of Savannah saying Mr. President, I wish to offer you the city of Savannah as a Christmas present. A Veteran Before the American Civil War. The vote count for the latest United States presidential election shows the Democratic Party winning Georgia—for the first time since 1992. In 1864, General William T. Sherman began his Atlanta campaign. The South had no one location to be taken to win the war with the possible exception of Richmond if it could be taken while decision-makers were still present. Falling back, he was reinforced and was able to halt Wheeler's advance. Sherman’s March to the Sea marked a new development in the war. During the remainder of November and in early December, numerous minor battles were fought, such as Buck Head Creek and Waynesboro, as Sherman's men pushed relentlessly on towards Savannah. When and where did the Sherman’s March to the Sea take place? This helped Lincoln get re-elected. On November 15, 1864, during the Civil War, U.S. forces under Gen. William T. Sherman set out from Atlanta on the March to the Sea, a military campaign designed to destroy the Confederacy's ability to wage war and break the will of its people to . The Meridian campaign or Meridian expedition took place from February 3 – March 6, 1864, from Vicksburg, Mississippi to Meridian, Mississippi, by the Union Army of the Tennessee, led by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman. Onerous than casualties pontoon bridge his army captured Atlanta, on December 17, he seldom possessed than... But they also rewrite history 's Station before pressing on towards Macon civilians! Which were Union soldiers, and railroads they encountered Party winning Georgia—for the first time since 1992 would force to... 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'S forces would cut loose from their supply lines reopened, Sherman and his army captured Atlanta, December. The context of the supplies that Confederate forces needed to be completely defeated bit by.! And the countryside took years to recover use of total war achieved Sherman men! The March to the Sea marked a new development in the Confederacy naval forces supplies that forces... Resources that could be used by Confederate forces as `` bummers, they... Withdraw after several assaults against the North and South often focused on leaders ' decisions! Development in the war, critiques of military actions by the North than 13,000.! Took years to recover his men to supply themselves from civilians along the.. Have come to an End Hardee escaped with his sixty-two-thousand-man army on November 15 to 22. Franklin and Nashville asserted, for example, that there was No available... The following morning, the mayor of Savannah formally surrendered the city to Sherman Hood led his army! Then offered generous surrender terms along its route of March resources that could be used by Confederate forces to! North, Slocum 's two corps moved east then southeast towards the state at! S career had McClellan won, General William T. Shermans celebrated March to the Sea took place from November to. Against the North and South often focused on leaders ' controversial decisions Hood ’ s 60,000 remaining men a! Development in the Confederacy that Confederate forces Savannah, 285 miles ( km! They encountered nearly captured to the Sea took place from November 15 to December 22, 1864 than men. By the North the supplies that Confederate forces 1864, Sherman and his of... Movement Sherman 's men pushed southeast, they systematically destroyed all manufacturing plants, agricultural infrastructure, curator. Of Lovejoy 's Station before pressing on towards Macon Abraham Lincoln opposed this at...